Cloud Computing: Concepts, Technology & Architecture

Cloud Computing: Concepts, Technology & Architecture
by Thomas Erl,
Zaigham Mahmood,
Ricardo Puttini

  • Foreword

    Acknowledgments

    Chapter 1: Introduction
    • 1.1 Objectives of This Book
    • 1.2 What This Book Does Not Cover
    • 1.3 Who This Book Is For
    • 1.4 How This Book Is Organized
      • Part I: Fundamental Cloud Computing
      • Part II: Cloud Computing Mechanisms
      • Part III: Cloud Computing Architecture
      • Part IV: Working with Clouds
      • Part V: Appendices
    • 1.5 Conventions
      • Symbols and Figures
      • Summary of Key Points
    • 1.6 Additional Information
      • Updates, Errata, and Resources (www.servicetechbooks.com)
      • Referenced Specifications (www.servicetechspecs.com)
      • The Service Technology Magazine (www.servicetechmag.com)
      • International Service Technology Symposium (www.servicetechsymposium.com)
      • What Is Cloud? (www.whatiscloud.com)
      • What Is REST? (www.whatisrest.com)
      • Cloud Computing Design Patterns (www.cloudpatterns.org)
      • Service-Orientation (www.serviceorientation.com)
      • CloudSchool.com™ Certified Cloud (CCP) Professional (www.cloudschool.com)
      • SOASchool.com® SOA Certified (SOACP) Professional (www.soaschool.com)
      • Notification Service
  • Chapter 2: Case Study Background
    • 2.1 Case Study #1: ATN
      • Technical Infrastructure and Environment
      • Business Goals and New Strategy
      • Roadmap and Implementation Strategy
    • 2.2 Case Study #2: DTGOV
      • Technical Infrastructure and Environment
      • Business Goals and New Strategy
      • Roadmap and Implementation Strategy
    • 2.3 Case Study #3: Innovartus Technologies Inc.
      • Technical Infrastructure and Environment
      • Business Goals and Strategy
      • Roadmap and Implementation Strategy

PART I: FUNDAMENTAL CLOUD COMPUTING

  • Chapter 3: Understanding Cloud Computing
    • 3.1 Origins and Influences
      • A Brief History
      • Definitions
      • Business Drivers
        • Capacity Planning
        • Cost Reduction
        • Organizational Agility
      • Technology Innovations
        • Clustering
        • Grid Computing
        • Virtualization
        • Technology Innovations vs. Enabling Technologies
    • 3.2 Basic Concepts and Terminology
      • Cloud
      • IT Resource
      • On-Premise
      • Cloud Consumers and Cloud Providers
      • Scaling
        • Horizontal Scaling
        • Vertical Scaling
      • Cloud Service
      • Cloud Service Consumer
    • 3.3 Goals and Benefits
      • Reduced Investments and Proportional Costs
      • Increased Scalability
      • Increased Availability and Reliability
    • 3.4 Risks and Challenges
      • Increased Security Vulnerabilities
      • Reduced Operational Governance Control
      • Limited Portability Between Cloud Providers
      • Multi-Regional Compliance and Legal Issues
  • Chapter 4: Fundamental Concepts and Models
    • 4.1 Roles and Boundaries
      • Cloud Provider
      • Cloud Consumer
      • Cloud Service Owner
      • Cloud Resource Administrator
      • Additional Roles
      • Organizational Boundary
      • Trust Boundary
    • 4.2 Cloud Characteristics
      • On-Demand Usage
      • Ubiquitous Access
      • Multitenancy (and Resource Pooling)
      • Elasticity
      • Measured Usage
      • Resiliency
    • 4.3 Cloud Delivery Models
      • Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS)
      • Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS)
      • Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)
      • Comparing Cloud Delivery Models
      • Combining Cloud Delivery Models
        • IaaS + PaaS
        • IaaS + PaaS + SaaS
    • 4.4 Cloud Deployment Models
      • Public Clouds
      • Community Clouds
      • Private Clouds
      • Hybrid Clouds
      • Other Cloud Deployment Models
  • Chapter 5: Cloud-Enabling Technology
    • 5.1 Broadband Networks and Internet Architecture
      • Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
      • Connectionless Packet Switching (Datagram Networks)
      • Router-Based Interconnectivity
        • Physical Network
        • Transport Layer Protocol
        • Application Layer Protocol
      • Technical and Business Considerations
        • Connectivity Issues
        • Network Bandwidth and Latency Issues
        • Cloud Carrier and Cloud Provider Selection
    • 5.2 Data Center Technology
      • Virtualization
      • Standardization and Modularity
      • Automation
      • Remote Operation and Management
      • High Availability
      • Security-Aware Design, Operation, and Management
      • Facilities
      • Computing Hardware
      • Storage Hardware
      • Network Hardware
        • Carrier and External Networks Interconnection
        • Web-Tier Load Balancing and Acceleration
        • LAN Fabric
        • SAN Fabric
        • NAS Gateways
      • Other Considerations
    • 5.3 Virtualization Technology
      • Hardware Independence
      • Server Consolidation
      • Resource Replication
      • Operating System-Based Virtualization
      • Hardware-Based Virtualization
      • Virtualization Management
      • Other Considerations
    • 5.4 Web Technology
      • Basic Web Technology
      • Web Applications
    • 5.5 Multitenant Technology
    • 5.6 Service Technology
      • Web Services
      • REST Services
      • Service Agents
      • Service Middleware
    • 5.7 Case Study Example
  • Chapter 6: Fundamental Cloud Security
    • 6.1 Basic Terms and Concepts
      • Confidentiality
      • Integrity
      • Authenticity
      • Availability
      • Threat
      • Vulnerability
      • Risk
      • Security Controls
      • Security Mechanisms
      • Security Policies
    • 6.2 Threat Agents
      • Anonymous Attacker
      • Malicious Service Agent
      • Trusted Attacker
      • Malicious Insider
    • 6.3 Cloud Security Threats
      • Traffic Eavesdropping
      • Malicious Intermediary
      • Denial of Service
      • Insufficient Authorization
      • Virtualization Attack
      • Overlapping Trust Boundaries
    • 6.4 Additional Considerations
      • Flawed Implementations
      • Security Policy Disparity
      • Contracts
      • Risk Management
    • 6.5 Case Study Example

PART II: CLOUD COMPUTING MECHANISMS

  • Chapter 7: Cloud Infrastructure Mechanisms
    • 7.1 Logical Network Perimeter
      • Case Study Example
    • 7.2 Virtual Server
      • Case Study Example
    • 7.3 Cloud Storage Device
      • Cloud Storage Levels
      • Network Storage Interfaces
      • Object Storage Interfaces
      • Database Storage Interfaces
        • Relational Data Storage
        • Non-Relational Data Storage
      • Case Study Example
    • 7.4 Cloud Usage Monitor
      • Monitoring Agent
      • Resource Agent
      • Polling Agent
      • Case Study Example
    • 7.5 Resource Replication
      • Case Study Example
    • 7.6 Ready-Made Environment
      • Case Study Example
  • Chapter 8: Specialized Cloud Mechanisms
    • 8.1 Automated Scaling Listener
      • Case Study Example
    • 8.2 Load Balancer
      • Case Study Example
    • 8.3 SLA Monitor
      • Case Study Example
        • SLA Monitor Polling Agent
        • SLA Monitoring Agent
    • 8.4 Pay-Per-Use Monitor
      • Case Study Example
    • 8.5 Audit Monitor
      • Case Study Example
    • 8.6 Failover System
      • Active-Active
      • Active-Passive
      • Case Study Example
    • 8.7 Hypervisor
      • Case Study Example
    • 8.8 Resource Cluster
      • Case Study Example
    • 8.9 Multi-Device Broker
      • Case Study Example
    • 8.10 State Management Database
      • Case Study Example
  • Chapter 9: Cloud Management Mechanisms
    • 9.1 Remote Administration System
      • Case Study Example
    • 9.2 Resource Management System
      • Case Study Example
    • 9.3 SLA Management System
      • Case Study Example
    • 9.4 Billing Management System
      • Case Study Example
  • Chapter 10: Cloud Security Mechanisms
    • 10.1 Encryption
      • Symmetric Encryption
      • Asymmetric Encryption
      • Case Study Example
    • 10.2 Hashing
      • Case Study Example
    • 10.3 Digital Signature
      • Case Study Example
    • 10.4 Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)
      • Case Study Example
    • 10.5 Identity and Access Management (IAM)
      • Case Study Example
    • 10.6 Single Sign-On (SSO)
      • Case Study Example
    • 10.7 Cloud-Based Security Groups
      • Case Study Example
    • 10.8 Hardened Virtual Server Images
      • Case Study Example

PART III: CLOUD COMPUTING ARCHITECTURE

  • Chapter 11: Fundamental Cloud Architectures
    • 11.1 Workload Distribution Architecture
    • 11.2 Resource Pooling Architecture
    • 11.3 Dynamic Scalability Architecture
    • 11.4 Elastic Resource Capacity Architecture
    • 11.5 Service Load Balancing Architecture
    • 11.6 Cloud Bursting Architecture
    • 11.7 Elastic Disk Provisioning Architecture
    • 11.8 Redundant Storage Architecture
    • 11.9 Case Study Example
  • Chapter 12: Advanced Cloud Architectures
    • 12.1 Hypervisor Clustering Architecture
    • 12.2 Load Balanced Virtual Server Instances Architecture
    • 12.3 Non-Disruptive Service Relocation Architecture
    • 12.4 Zero Downtime Architecture
    • 12.5 Cloud Balancing Architecture
    • 12.6 Resource Reservation Architecture
    • 12.7 Dynamic Failure Detection and Recovery Architecture
    • 12.8 Bare-Metal Provisioning Architecture
    • 12.9 Rapid Provisioning Architecture
    • 12.10 Storage Workload Management Architecture
    • 12.11 Case Study Example
  • Chapter 13: Specialized Cloud Architectures
    • 13.1 Direct I/O Access Architecture
    • 13.2 Direct LUN Access Architecture
    • 13.3 Dynamic Data Normalization Architecture
    • 13.4 Elastic Network Capacity Architecture
    • 13.5 Cross-Storage Device Vertical Tiering Architecture
    • 13.6 Intra-Storage Device Vertical Data Tiering Architecture
    • 13.7 Load Balanced Virtual Switches Architecture
    • 13.8 Multipath Resource Access Architecture
    • 13.9 Persistent Virtual Network Configuration Architecture
    • 13.10 Redundant Physical Connection for Virtual Servers Architecture
    • 13.11 Storage Maintenance Window Architecture

PART IV: WORKING WITH CLOUDS

  • Chapter 14: Cloud Delivery Model Considerations
    • 14.1 Cloud Delivery Models: The Cloud Provider Perspective
      • Building IaaS Environments
        • Data Centers
        • Scalability and Reliability
        • Monitoring
        • Security
      • Equipping PaaS Environments
        • Scalability and Reliability
        • Monitoring
        • Security
      • Optimizing SaaS Environments
        • Security
    • 14.2 Cloud Delivery Models: The Cloud Consumer
      • Perspective
      • Working with IaaS Environments
        • IT Resource Provisioning Considerations
      • Working with PaaS Environments
        • IT Resource Provisioning Considerations
      • Working with SaaS Services
    • 14.3 Case Study Example
  • Chapter 15: Cost Metrics and Pricing Models
    • 15.1 Business Cost Metrics
      • Up-Front and On-Going Costs
      • Additional Costs
      • Case Study Example
      • Product Catalog Browser
        • On-Premise Up-Front Costs
        • On-Premise On-Going Costs
        • Cloud-Based Up-Front Costs
        • Cloud-Based On-Going Costs
      • Client Database
        • On-Premise Up-Front Costs
        • On-Premise On-Going Costs
        • Cloud-Based Up-Front Costs
        • Cloud-Based On-Going Costs
    • 15.2 Cloud Usage Cost Metrics
      • Network Usage
        • Inbound Network Usage Metric
        • Outbound Network Usage Metric
        • Intra-Cloud WAN Usage Metric
      • Server Usage
        • On-Demand Virtual Machine Instance Allocation Metric
        • Reserved Virtual Machine Instance Allocation Metric
      • Cloud Storage Device Usage
        • On-Demand Storage Space Allocation Metric
        • I/O Data Transferred Metric
      • Cloud Service Usage
        • Application Subscription Duration Metric
        • Number of Nominated Users Metric
        • Number of Transactions Users Metric
    • 15.3 Cost Management Considerations
      • Pricing Models
      • Additional Considerations
      • Case Study Example
      • Virtual Server On-Demand Instance Allocation
      • Virtual Server Reserved Instance Allocation
      • Cloud Storage Device
      • WAN Traffic
  • Chapter 16: Service Quality Metrics and SLAs
    • 16.1 Service Quality Metrics
      • Service Availability Metrics
        • Availability Rate Metric
        • Outage Duration Metric
      • Service Reliability Metrics
        • Mean-Time Between Failures (MTBF) Metric
        • Reliability Rate Metric
      • Service Performance Metrics
        • Network Capacity Metric
        • Storage Device Capacity Metric
        • Server Capacity Metric
        • Web Application Capacity Metric
        • Instance Starting Time Metric
        • Response Time Metric
        • Completion Time Metric
      • Service Scalability Metrics
        • Server Scalability (Horizontal) Metric
        • Server Scalability (Horizontal) Metric
        • Server Scalability (Vertical) Metric
      • Service Resiliency Metrics
        • Mean-Time to Switchover (MTSO) Metric
        • Mean-Time System Recovery (MTSR) Metric
    • 16.2 Case Study Example
    • 16.3 SLA Guidelines
    • 16.4 Case Study Example
      • Scope and Applicability
      • Service Quality Guarantees
      • Definitions
      • Usage of Financial Credits
      • SLA Exclusions

PART V: APPENDICES

  • Appendix A: Case Study Conclusions
    • A.1 ATN
    • A.2 DTGOV
    • A.3 Innovartus
  • Appendix B: Industry Standards Organizations
    • B.1 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
    • B.2 Cloud Security Alliance (CSA)
    • B.3 Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF)
    • B.4 Storage Networking Industry Association (SNIA)
    • B.5 Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS)
    • B.6 The Open Group
    • B.7 Open Cloud Consortium (OCC)
    • B.8 European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)
    • B.9 Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA)
    • B.10 Liberty Alliance
    • B.11 Open Grid Forum (OGF)
  • Appendix C: Mapping Mechanisms to Characteristics
  • Appendix D: Data Center Facilities (TIA-942)
    • D.1 Primary Rooms
      • Electrical Room
      • Mechanical Room
      • Storage and Staging
      • Offices, Operations Center, and Support
      • Telecommunications Entrance
      • Computer Room
    • D.2 Environmental Controls
      • External Electrical Power Provider Interconnection
      • Power Distribution
      • Uninterruptible Power Source (UPS)
      • Power Engine-Generator
    • D.3 Infrastructure Redundancy Summary
  • Appendix E: Cloud-Adapted Risk Management Framework
    • E.1 Security Conservation Principle
    • E.2 The Risk Management Framework
  • Appendix F: Cloud Provisioning Contracts
    • F.1 Cloud Provisioning Contract Structure
      • Terms of Service
        • Service Usage Policy
        • Security and Privacy Policy
        • Warranties and Liabilities
        • Rights and Responsibilities
        • Termination and Renewal
      • Specifications and SLAs
      • Pricing and Billing
      • Other Issues
        • Legal and Compliance Issues
        • Auditability and Accountability
        • Changes in the Contract Terms and Conditions
    • F.2 Cloud Provider Selection Guidelines
      • Cloud Provider Viability
  • Appendix G: Cloud Business Case Template
    • G.1 Business Case Identification
    • G.2 Business Needs
    • G.3 Target Cloud Environment
    • G.4 Technical Issues
    • G.5 Economic Factors
  • Appendix H: Emerging Technologies
    • H.1 Autonomic Computing
    • H.2 Grid Computing
      • Service Grids
  • About the Authors
    • Thomas Erl
    • Zaigham Mahmood
    • Ricardo Puttini
  • About the Foreword Contributor
    • Pamela J. Wise-Martinez, MSc
  • About the Contributors
    • Gustavo Azzolin, BSc, MSc
    • Amin Naserpour
    • Vinícius Pacheco, MSc
    • Matthias Ziegler
  • Index